Representing various types of information as objects (Section 2.2.1).
Using functions for manipulating those objects (Section 2.4).
A key limitation of Chapter 2 was that we used linear vectors as our only shape of data object. While a vector can have any of the key data types, its shape is characterized by its length (and vectors with only one element are called scalars).
In this chapter, we will encounter additional data structures. For instance, we will see that lists are linear data structures that can store objects of multiple data types and that matrices and data frames are rectangular data structures that can store vectors of a single or multiple data types.
This chapter extends Chapter 2 by introducing additional R concepts and commands. Its key concept is the notion of a data structure as a specific combination of data types and shapes. Beyond atomic vectors, we will learn to create and access lists, matrices, and data frames.
3.1.2 Data and tools
This chapter only uses base R functions and snippets of example data that we will generate along the way.